Concepts for an Integrated Systems Approach to Green, Sustainable Development

November 12, 2012 By Timothy Nolan, Guest Commentary

Best Practice asserts that there is a technique, method, process, activity, incentive or reward that is more effective at delivering a desired outcome, with fewer problems and unforeseen complications. Best practices are the most efficient (least amount of effort) and effective (best results) way of accomplishing a task, based on repeatable procedures that have proven themselves over time for large numbers of people.

Biobased in contrast to the petroleum-based model, involve photosynthesis that occurred in the past decade in a predictable, natural manner. Bio-based processes use naturally occurring enzymes or organisms. Bio-based manufacturing processes generate by-products that are not hazardous, can be reused and are disposed of through biodegradable methods.

Biochemicals refers to chemicals that are produced from plant matter derived from renewable resources such as vegetable oils, fiber and grain crops, citrus fruits, nuts and trees. Plant matter-based chemicals such as soy methyl esters, ethyl lactate and grain-derived alcohol are used to produce a variety of industrial products for processing and manufacturing operations. Examples of applications for plant-based chemicals include industrial solvents, equipment lubricants, paints and coatings, plastics, and biofuels.

Biofuels means fuels made from biomass resources, or their processing and conversion derivatives and include ethanol, biodiesel, and methanol. Biomass means any organic matter that is available on a renewable or recurring basis, including agricultural crops and trees, wood and wood wastes and residues, plants (including aquatic plants), grasses, residues, fibers, and animal wastes, municipal wastes, and other waste materials.

By-Product Synergy is the matching of undervalued waste or by-product streams from one facility with potential users at another facility to create new revenues or savings with social and environmental benefits. This may involve the physical exchange of materials, energy, water and/or by-products and represents a crucial business opportunity to innovate across industrial organizations, processes, and products. By turning waste output into a product stream reduces waste, greenhouse gas emissions and the need for virgin-stream materials. The process brings clusters of facilities together to create closed-loop systems in which one facility’s wastes become another’s raw materials. (A. Mangan US Business Council for Sustainable Development and E. Olivetti Massachusetts Institute of Technology)

Carbon Intensity is the amount of carbon by weight emitted per unit of energy consumed. A common measure of carbon intensity is weight of carbon per British thermal unit (Btu) of energy. When there is only one fossil fuel under consideration, the carbon intensity and the emissions coefficient are identical. When there are several fuels, carbon intensity is based on their combined emissions coefficients weighted by their energy consumption levels.

Circular Economy refers to an industrial economy that intentionally designs more cyclical and restorative materials flows where biological systems are balanced and do not manifest in the biosphere, is, by design or intention, restorative and in which materials flows are recovered as biological nutrients that do not contaminate ecological systems, or technical nutrients recovered in production. Diversity is a means to resiliency and the intention is to optimize productive resource use with more restorative impacts on the environment.

Cluster-Based is geographic concentrations of interconnected companies, specialized suppliers, service providers, and associated institutions in a particular field. Clusters arise because they increase the productivity with which companies can compete, and usually include companies that do business inside and outside of their particular region, supporting firms that supply them with raw materials, finished components and business services. Clusters greatly enhance a particular industry's competitiveness and improve productivity by providing ready access to specialized suppliers, skills, information, training and technology. This helps foster innovation by increasing opportunities for new products, new processes and meeting new needs with a full range of local suppliers and research institutions. Clusters can facilitate the commercialization of innovation by creating start-ups, spin-offs, and new business lines with needed inputs such as banks and venture capital. (Wisconsin Department of Commerce)

Clean-Green-Sustainable Enterprise involves a business, or group of businesses, that produce goods or services that provide significant environmental performance advantages over equivalent goods or services, usually comparative within a specific industry. Core production processes, operations, and business activities of a CGS enterprise should involve technologies, products, or services that measure, prevent, limit, correct, restore, or enhance air, water, energy, food, land, and ecosystems and result in improved environmental quality. Included under the rubric of CGS enterprises are innovative clean technologies, processes, products, and services that significantly improve environmental performance.

Clean Production applies ways to reduce and eliminate the reliance on toxic materials to make goods, to prevent air and water pollution, and to avoid wastes generation. This involves moving away from a “cradle-to-grave” linear industrial model, where raw materials are extracted and processed and the substances not directly useful to a factory become unwanted waste, to “closed-loop” systems in which the byproducts of one process become the feedstock of another. This, while progressively utilizing smaller and cleaner (in terms of emissions) material, water and energy flows. Renewable and non-toxic inputs become the primary substances in production, and product design minimizes product life-cycle impacts.

Clean Technology is a term used to describe knowledge-based products or services that improve operational performance, productivity, or efficiency while reducing costs, inputs, energy consumption, waste, or pollution. Its origin is the increased consumer, regulatory and industry interest in clean forms of energy generation—specifically, perhaps, the rise in awareness of global warming and the impact on the natural environment from the burning of fossil fuels.

Climate Change refers to all forms of climatic inconsistency, but especially to significant change from one prevailing climatic condition to another. In some cases, "climate change" has been used synonymously with the term "global warming"; scientists, however, tend to use the term in a wider sense inclusive of natural changes in climate, including climatic cooling.

Closed Loop (Cyclical) Systems involves the evolution of industrial systems from linear systems, where resources are consumed and damaging wastes are dissipated into the environment to a more closed systems like that of ecological systems. In a linear process, materials and energy enter one part of the system and then leave either as products or by-products/wastes. Unless the supply of materials and energy is infinite and the carrying capacity of the natural systems can assimilate the wastes and emissions, this system is unsustainable. In most of our current industrial systems, some wastes are recycled or reused within the system while others leave it. In a more evolved and integrated industrial system, there is a dynamic equilibrium with ecological systems, where energy and wastes are constantly recycled and reused in closed loops by other processes within the system.

Cogeneration also called combined heat and power is the production of electrical and capture of thermal energy sequentially from steam, heat, or other forms of energy produced as a by-product of another process. This raises thermal efficiency of the power generating system by as much as 25-35 percent, significantly reducing power losses. Distribution losses represent steam heat lost in traps, valves, and steam pipes, and transmission losses in onsite fuel and electricity lines. In practice, these losses are very site-specific, and depend largely on plant size and configuration. Energy conversion losses occur in heat exchangers, preheat systems, or other equipment where the transfer of energy from steam or other direct heat or cooling takes place, prior to delivery of energy to the process.

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is an expression describing what a company’s intent to consider the needs of all of the stakeholders in its business operations. A company’s stakeholders are all those who are influenced by, or can influence, a company’s decisions and actions including (but are not limited to): employees, customers, suppliers, community organizations, subsidiaries and affiliates, joint venture partners, local neighborhoods, investors, and shareholders (or a sole owner). CSR is closely linked with the principles of "Sustainable Development" an obligation to make decisions not only on financial and economic factors but also on the social and environmental consequences of their activities.

Decarbonization as a part of clean production, aims to reduce carbon impacts across a product’s life cycle.

Dematerialization as a part of clean production, aims to reduce the amount of raw materials needed to create a product by, for example, making vehicles lighter and cutting the energy needed to operate products.

Deferred Cost is an expenditure not recognized as a cost of operation of the period in which incurred, but carried forward to be written off in future periods.

Design for the Environment (DFE) systematically considers all lifecycle phases of a product and optimizes design to maximize efficient use of water, materials and energy and improve product function and appeal. DfE is a progression of traditional pollution prevention concepts, integrated upstream into the development phase of products before production and use. The objective is to minimize or eliminate environmental impacts.

Distributed Energy Resources (Also called distributed power, distributed energy, distributed generation.) Both electric demand reduction (energy conservation, load management, etc.) and supply generated at or near where the power is used. A distributed generation system involves amounts of generation located on a utility’s distribution system for the purpose of meeting local (substation level) peak loads and/or displacing the need to build additional (or upgrade) local distribution lines. (2001 Minnesota Department of Commerce Energy Planning Report)

Eco-Efficiency applies a management strategy, linking financial and environmental performance to create more value with less ecological impact through:

• Optimized processes—moving from costly end-of-pipe solutions to approaches that prevent pollution in the first place.
• Waste recycling - using the by-products and wastes of one industry as raw materials and resources for another, thus creating zero waste.
• Eco-innovation—manufacturing “smarter” by using new knowledge to make old products more resource-efficient to produce and use.
• New services—such as, leasing products rather than selling them, changing perceptions and spurring a shift to product durability and recycling.
• Networks and virtual organizations - shared resources increase the effective use of physical assets.

Eco-Innovation is the intent to achieve a higher level of ecological improvements – enhancing rather than depleting or degrading natural assets – through the commercial application of knowledge and associated cleaner technologies, in the production of goods and services. Eco-innovations can also occur in the infrastructure systems that support economies and natural resources use on which they depend.

Ecology is about living organisms’ interrelationships within their environments.

Ecological Footprint is a resource management tool that measures how much land and water area a human population requires to produce the resources it consumes and to absorb its wastes under prevailing technology. Today, humanity's Ecological Footprint is over twenty three percent larger than what the planet can regenerate. (Source Global Footprint Network)

Economy is the efficient use of material resources in the production, distribution, and consumption or goods and services, within a framework for commerce that provides the infrastructure and sets the rules.

Economic System establishes the conditions for production, distribution and consumption of goods and services of an economy. It is made up of human institutions that set the principles and methods by which economic problems are addressed, including relationships such as allocation and productive use of resources.

Ecosystems are communities of plants, animals and microbes interacting with one another and with their physical and chemical environment (e.g. soil, water, nutrients). Ecosystem interactions result in the capture and transformation of energy and nutrients that drive all life processes. Humans are part of ecosystems, as well, and depend on and impact the services ecosystems supply. Ecology is about living organisms’ interrelationships within their environments.

Ecosystem Services are the vast array of processes necessary to provide resources and maintain life on earth. Obvious examples include production of game species, seafood, timber, pharmaceuticals, fuel, fiber, and so on. Less obvious are services not traditionally traded in the marketplace, such as nutrient cycling, modulation of climate, air and water purification, pollination, soil production, UV protection, mitigation of floods or droughts, and aesthetic beauty or personal enjoyment.

Energy Efficiency Minnesota Definition is using less energy (electricity and/or natural gas) to perform the same function at the same level of quality. Programs designed to use energy more efficiently — doing the same with less. For the purpose of this paper, energy efficiency is distinguished from DSM programs in that the latter are utility sponsored and financed, while the former is a broader term not limited to any particular sponsor or funding source.

Energy Intensity A ratio of energy consumption to another metric, typically national gross domestic product in the case of a country's energy intensity. Sector-specific intensities may refer to energy consumption per household, per unit of commercial floor space, per dollar value industrial shipment, or another metric indicative of a sector. Improvements in energy intensity include energy efficiency and conservation as well as structural factors not related to technology or behavior.

Energy Return on Investment (EROI) is the ratio of the energy extracted or delivered by a process to the energy used directly and indirectly in that process. A common related term is energy surplus, which is the gross amount of energy extracted or delivered, minus the energy used directly and indirectly in that process. EROI is a tool of net energy analysis, a methodology that seeks to compare the amount of energy delivered to society by a technology to the total energy required to find, extract, process, deliver, and otherwise upgrade that energy to a socially useful form. (Ten Fundamental Principles of Net Energy, Cutler J. Cleveland)

Environmentally Preferable Purchasing (as defined by federal government) involves goods that have a reduced effect on human health and the environment when compared to competing products that serve the same purpose. Environmentally preferable attributes include reduced toxicity, the use of recycled materials, and increased energy efficiency, often based on environmental criteria across a product's life cycle.

Extended Producer Responsibility is the extension of the responsibility of producers, and all entities involved in the product chain, to reduce the cradle-to-cradle impacts of a product and its packaging; the primary responsibility lies with the producer, or brand owner, who makes design and marketing decisions. Cradle-to-cradle impacts include energy, water, and materials use; greenhouse gas and other air emissions; toxic and hazardous substances; materials recovery and waste disposal; and worker safety.

A related policy framework is Product Stewardship. This imparts that all parties in the design, manufacture, distribution, and consumption of a product, take responsibility for environmental impacts at every stage of that product's life. This addresses disconnects between the production of goods in the private sector and management of those goods at end of life by the public sector. Product stewardship requires manufacturers to share in financial and physical responsibility for collecting and recycling products at the end of their useful lives, which incents them to utilize secondary materials, and encourages those along the supply chain to rethink products to recover as resources rather than waste.

Externalities are benefits or costs, generated as a byproduct of an economic activity, that do not accrue to the parties involved in the activity. Environmental externalities are benefits or costs that manifest themselves through changes in the physical or biological environment. The cost of an externality is a negative externality, or external cost, while the benefit of an externality is a positive externality, or external benefit.

Free Market Economy is an economy in which decisions regarding investment, production and distribution are based on supply and demand and the prices of goods and services are determined in a free price system. In such an economy the government allows and protects ownership of property and voluntary exchange. Market economies do not currently exist in pure form, as societies and governments regulate them to varying degrees rather than allow full self-regulation by market forces.

Full Cost Accounting generally refers to the process of collecting and presenting information about all the direct and indirect environmental, social, and economic costs and benefits associated with the value chain for each proposed alternative.

Green Chemistry is the use of chemistry for pollution prevention. It is the design of chemical feedstocks, products, and processes that reduce or eliminate the use or generation of hazardous substances. By offering environmentally benign alternatives to the more green chemistry is promoting pollution prevention at the molecular level. It involves formulating or designing a new product (or reformulating or redesigning an existing one) to reduce environmental, workplace, human health, and energy use impacts over a product's life-cycle.

Green Economy is the whole system of commerce –laws, economics, politics, culture, social connectivity, technologies, and infrastructure – that constitute the conditions for doing business. In a true Green Economy quality-of-life and standard of living are based less on overconsumption and more on balancing ecological stewardship with economic profitability. Human systems that support commerce move away from diminishing and degrading ecosystems and the services they provide.

Green Economy (Extrapolated from the Minnesota Green Jobs Laws 2008} means products, processes, methods, technologies, or services intended to do one or more of the following:

• Increase the use of energy from renewable sources to achieve the renewable energy standard established;
• Achieve the statewide energy savings goals;
• Achieve the greenhouse gas emission reduction goals through GHG reduction and mitigation;
• Monitor, protect, restore, and preserve the quality of surface waters, including actions to further the purposes of the Clean Water Legacy Act; or
• Expand the feasibility of clean biofuels, reduce the cost of producing biofuels, or increase demand for clean biofuels.
Green Goods or Services are goods and services produced by an establishment that benefit the environment or conserve natural resources. Green goods and services fall into one or more of the following five groups: production of energy from renewable sources, energy efficiency, pollution reduction and removal, greenhouse gas reduction and recycling and reuse, natural resources conservation, and environmental compliance, education & training, and public awareness (Bureau of Labor Statistics March 2012)

Greenhouse Gases are water vapor, carbon dioxide, tropospheric ozone, nitrous oxide, methane, and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).

Green Job (Minnesota’s Emerging Green Economy Green Jobs Report January 2012) is one that is directly related and/or essential to a green product, green service, or green process and at which workers spend at least 50 percent of the time in any of the following activities:

• Renewable Energy or Alternative Fuels
• Energy and/or Resource Efficiency
• Environmental Cleanup (including recycling and pollution prevention/mitigation activities)
• Sustainable Agriculture or Natural Resource Conservation
• Environmental Education, Regulation, Compliance, or Research
Infrastructure is for us to operate these systems and enterprise associated with a well functioning economy. These layers of facilities and associated with food, energy, and water systems, supported by transportation, telecommunications, waste and water management, economic, and governance systems. And yes, green infrastructure, both natural and engineered. These all become interconnected to provide the structure and framework for prosperity.

Innovation involves new ways of doing things that can range from incremental, emergent, radical, disruptive, to revolutionary levels. Key principles behind innovation are to make someone or something better, increase productivity, invoke positive change, and increase wealth and prosperity.

Lean Manufacturing is a business model and collection of tactical methods that emphasize eliminating non-value added activities (waste) while delivering quality products on time at least cost with greater efficiency. In the U.S., it is emerging as a core business strategy to create a competitive advantage. While the focus of lean manufacturing is on driving rapid, continual improvement in cost, quality, service, and delivery, significant environmental benefits often result. Lean production techniques create a culture of continuous improvement, and employee empowerment. (source

Life Cycle is consecutive and interlinked stages of a product system, from raw material acquisition or generation of natural resources to the final disposition.

Material Intensity refers to the quantity of material used to produce goods and services, and is typically is defined as the ratio of materials use to value added. This is determined by the material composition of the product, or the product composition of output, as this relates to the mix of goods produced by the economy. Drivers that change material intensity include:

• technical improvements that decrease the quantity of materials used
• substitution of new materials with more desirable properties
• changes in the structure of final product demand
• the saturation of bulk markets for basic materials
• government regulations that alter materials use

Means of Production refers to physical, non-human inputs used in production—the factories, machines, and tools used to produce wealth— along with both infrastructural capital and natural capital.

Natural Capital includes the resources of a natural ecosystem that yields a flow of valuable ecosystem goods and services in the future. It is the extension of economic capital to environmental goods and services. This capital is defined as the stock of living and life sustaining ecological assets that yield goods and services on a continuous basis. Main functions include resource production, waste assimilation and life support services. (Source Global Footprint Network)

Paradigm Shifting A paradigm is a framing set of beliefs, concepts and standard practices that guide human action. A paradigm is the entire constellation of beliefs, values, and techniques, and so on shared by the members of a given community. A paradigm governs not a subject matter but group of practitioners. To be accepted as a paradigm, a theory must seem better than its competitors, but it need not and in fact never does, explain all the facts with which it can be confronted. New paradigms seldom or never poses all the capabilities of their predecessors, they usually preserve a great deal of the concrete parts of past achievements and permit additional solutions besides.

Pollution Prevention involves changing the existing or planned operations so that the volume and/or toxicity of wastes are minimized, so that waste generation is prevented all together. Pollution Prevention (P2) is the reduction or elimination of pollution at the source (source reduction) instead of at the end-of-the-pipe or stack. Pollution prevention occurs when raw materials, water, energy and other resources are utilized more efficiently, when less harmful substances are substituted for hazardous ones, and when toxic substances are eliminated from the production process.

Public Good A good (or a service) that will not be produced and delivered solely by the free market. Economists call these “public goods” because the public consumes them, but they do not solely benefit a single buyer or group of buyers. There is no way to produce a public good without producing a value to society at large. It is unlikely that an individual would pay out of his or her own pocket to ensure that a public good is produced because the value is not exclusively individual.

Renewable Energy Resources are naturally replenishing but flow-limited. They are virtually inexhaustible in duration but limited in the amount of energy that is available per unit of time. Renewable energy resources include biomass, hydro, geothermal, solar, wind, ocean thermal, wave action, and tidal action.

Renewable Energy Sources the most common definition is that renewable energy is from an energy resource that is replaced by a natural process at a rate that is equal to or faster than the rate at which that resource is being consumed. Renewable energy sources (RES) capture their energy from existing flows of energy, from on-going natural processes, such as sunshine, wind, wave power , flowing water (hydropower), biological processes such as anaerobic digestion, and geothermal heat flow. Renewable energy sources may be used directly, or used to create other more convenient forms of energy.

Utility RES applications include bulk electricity generation, on-site electricity generation, distributed electricity generation, non-grid-connected generation, and demand reduction (energy efficiency) technologies. (Minnesota Department of Commerce, 2001 Minnesota Energy Planning Report)

Resource Depletion is the depletion of important renewable and non-renewable resources as a consequence of economic growth. Examples are the world’s fisheries decline and rapid tropical forest lost. It can range in scale from global to national and local. A prime localized resource is water supplies, which are becoming overdrawn and polluted in many areas. High quality reserve stocks of key mineral resources are being depleted, and recovery of lower-quality reserves tends to involve higher energy and environmental costs. (Macroeconomics and Ecological Sustainability, Global Development and Environment Institute)

Resource Intensity is the efficiency of resource consumption as resource use per unit outcome, measured in resources (e.g. water, energy, materials) needed for the production, processing and disposal of a unit of good or service, or for the completion of a process or activity. Ways to express resource intensity include:

• Quantity of resource embodied in unit cost.
• On national level units of resource expended per unit of gross domestic product.
• Individually as per person unit of consumption.

High resource intensities indicate a high price or environmental cost of converting resource into Gross Domestic Product; low resource intensity indicates a lower price or environmental cost of converting resource into GDP.

Resource Productivity is the efficiency of resource production as outcome per unit of resource use. They both can be used as a metric for both economic and environmental cost. The sustainability objective is to maximize resource productivity while minimizing resource intensity.

Smart Infrastructure consists of natural green infrastructure – forests, grasslands, wetlands, and surface waterways that provide ecological services resulting in cleaner water and air – and engineered green infrastructure – human-designed that protect, restore, and regenerate, to reduce impacts on ecological systems and function. It also includes more innovative approaches or techniques (advanced) not limited to traditional systems. Both forms of infrastructure can be complementary to achieve superior levels of energy and resource efficiency, preserve and enhance natural resources, and apply designs that soften the footprint of development and resource use. To be considered smart infrastructure, superior performance should result.

Supply Chain is the all inclusive set of links from raw materials to customer, including extraction, transportation, fuels, manufacturing, and use, i.e., the network of retailers, distributors, transporters, storage facilities and suppliers that participate in the sale, delivery and production of a particular product ( 2003).

Sustainability means ensuring that all future citizens have the opportunity to enjoy lives as rich and meaningful as our own, and in a natural environment that is at least as clean, intact, and healthy as that which we enjoy today. Activities that provide future generations with degraded natural resources, reduced economic opportunities or diminished social wellbeing are inherently less sustainable than policies and actions that maintain or improve these systems. (The Minnesota 2050 Project and the Minnesota Statewide Conservation and Preservation Plan 2008)

Sustainable Manufacturing is an approach to manufacturing that applies a “triple-bottom-line framework” and minimizes waste and pollution achieved through product and process design. It is a philosophy rather than an adopted process or standard and integrates sustainability as a core principle. Sustainable manufacturing requires a shift from traditional end-of-pipe control methods to new technologies and process improvements that adopt:

• eco-efficiency and design for the environment approaches
• extended product responsibility in end-of-life management
• sustainable materials management including reusing and recycling byproducts
• maximum control technologies after minimization of production emissions
• manufacturing systems innovation including lean methods and greening supply chains
• green design and construction in facilities
• green chemistry and engineering
• renewable resource substitution and resource optimization
• progression toward zero waste and emissions strategies
• elimination of all environmentally damaging byproducts from the production process

Sustainable Supply Chain Management moves from a linear focus on least cost and efficient logistics for the company, to a network focus integrating resource strategies involving collaboration with supply chain partners, to maximize value and minimize cost. This kind of supply chain management goes beyond logistics, material handling, and purchasing to operate as integrated value networks, enabling companies to compete as supply chains, sharing information and ensuring reliable supplies. Failure to manage resource depletion can have hard operational consequences, such as supply disruptions, increased cost and shortage of key raw materials. Sustainability and an array of social impacts are becoming key considerations. This provides opportunity to take on these issues in a strategic way, enabling innovation and stronger supply-chain relationships to deliver added value.

Sustainable Systems is a set of integrated industrial and ecological processes that equitably meets the biophysical needs of society while maintaining the integrity of life-supporting ecosystems over a long-term time horizon. (University of Michigan Center for Sustainable Systems.

Systems Thinking is a philosophy that provides a conceptual framework, body of knowledge based on research, and a set of tools that help us understand and work within complex systems and find the leverage points for long-term change. It is a way of understanding how things work that emphasizes the relationships among a system’s parts rather than the parts themselves. It can help build more comprehensive understanding of problems and how to design long-term solutions versus short-lived fixes. It can also help us build alternative more balanced, effective and sustainable systems.

Triple Bottom Line expands the spectrum of values and criteria to account for organizational and societal success, beyond just focusing on financial outcomes, by integrating various measures of economic, environmental and social performance. The Triple Bottom Line is increasingly being recognized as a new framework for measuring business performance in the context of implementing sustainability initiatives. On a whole economy scale, it can be seen as a way to internalize the true costs of depleting natural assets, and setting a course for accounting for and restoring public goods.

Value Added by Manufacture is a measure of manufacturing activity that is derived by subtracting the cost of materials (which covers materials, supplies, containers, fuel, purchased electricity, and contract work) from the value of shipments. This difference is then adjusted by the net change in finished goods and work-in-progress between the beginning- and end-of-year inventories.

Zero Waste is a philosophy and design principle that aims to guide the redesign of a resource intensive system, to achieve reduced materials consumption, minimize wastes, maximize recycling, and ensure products are recovered for productive use. The concept extends beyond recycling to form a circular system, where wastes are assimilated or reused, as in balanced natural systems. Practicing zero waste strategies involves taking a whole systems approach, optimizing material inputs, high efficiencies at the production level, and the comprehensive redesign of finished goods so that they are more cyclically recovered for productive use rather than disposed.

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